Animal Use Table – non domesticated

Medicinal Animal Use ( Zootherapy ) amongst the KhoeSan of Namibia, South Africa and Botswana


Table 1


Mammals, birds, snakes, scorpions


Animal Part Used Uses and Preparation



/huwus ?





(J101)Rub ground tooth into gum with a thorn. Prick gum until the gum bleeds(H4) Children’s diarrhoea (concoction?)

(Kh2123) Rub on for entire body pain

(N/D31) grind it with porcupine dung for children


























Anus (yellow anal gland) 

































































(N23, D25, 54)Mix with kidney of bat eared fox, ostrich egg-shell for children’s medicine (D73) to stop wind of children(N39) sniff to vomit out ‘dirtiness’ (D25) in wallet for luck

(D18) sniff – any sickness, sometimes mixed with ostrich egg-shell

(Kh2110) For fits ‘staep’ (Afrikaans), rub on neck or head (Kh2111, 2114, 2115, 2116) with kidney of male bat eared fox (make neck pouch (Kh2114) to protect the child against dirt, (Kh2131) also child wears bag around waist for teething pain

(Kh2117) mixed with jackal’s liver, bat eared fox kidney for baby powder

(Kh2111) bottom sores and STD’s

(J2141) use the smell, burn until soft, mix with sa (plants), keeps a lion away

(!Ko)cook, mix with children’s medicine to make them strong

(H2220 ostrich egg-shell, kidney bat eared fox for children’s medicine

(H2239) cook with dung to vomit out poison


(D21,12) smell the smoke: asthma, chest pain, headaches, to ‘clean’ the placenta, to treat “lint worms” (?) in children; (D34) flu

(D10) cook and drink for chest pain, (D29) diarrhoea (D34) stomach pain

(D43) cook in water rub on painful legs

(N/D32) cook and drink or wash for whole body pain and drink for stomach pain, ; grind and sniff for high blood pressure

(N33) Soak legs in dung and warm water, drink for headaches

(N42) not feeling well, eating well

(N9) rub on head sores of child

(J65) put on coals to stop police visiting

(J/N100) put on fire to bring luck

(J 101) cook and drink for chest problems, burn for protection from spirits, grind and put on baby’s nose ‘so winds do not make him sick’

(H52) put on coal for chest pain and to stop naked witch people (H71, 2217) spirits and (H2221) bad winds at night (H2229, H54, 68, 69) to stop bad dreams, help sleep, (H2235) burn to stop snakes (H56,61 )headaches (H59) spirits and black shadow on your face (H60) smoke with tobacco for chest pain (H72) grind and rub on legs for leg pain, (H2220)smoke for chest pain

(H2239) cook with anus to vomit out poison

(H2210, 2246) Cook and drink for chest problems

(H2242) burn with kidneys of bat eared fox, child inhales smoke, for child sickness, protects from ‘people’s winds’

(H2210) with ostrich egg-shell, kidney of bat eared fox, in fire to help sleep, cook and drink for coughing (H2212) also rub mixture into cuts

(H2209)drink concoction for excessive chest mucous, or inhale smoke; plus kidney of bat eared fox , burn and inhale smoke for children’s sickness and to ‘protect from bad winds’

(H2212) plus bat eared fox kidney, plus ostrich egg-shell, drink and rubbed in cuts for children

(H2247) cook and drink for vomiting and if ‘someone has taken your footprint’ and your feet swell

(H2215) smoke with tobacco for pleasure, chest pain and bad luck, put in shoes or pocket for luck and to keep naked people away

(D13) drink, chew or rub on face – frightening animals run if smeared on face

(N27) sniff powder for burning throat and chest feeling

(N39) Cook and drink for lungs

(Nh98) pound with Ghee and Goreh plants, drink to vomit stomach dirtiness

(Nh102) Cook and drink for flu and full body sickness


(Kh15) Rub body with it to sustain health and treat pain

African Wild Cat/hòˆȁ.b (KKG) Hair 




(Kh2135) mix with sa perfume bush in a tortoise shell – put hairs in front of the nostrils of the “snore doctor” when they want to reconvert him into a human 

(H35) name for epilepsy “ /hôa-//ob” (wild cat sickness)

Baboon Dung 




(D 29, N37) drink dung in water – adults and children’s sickness(H59) grind and pour into teeth with holes


(D / Herero 38) Uses with a mirror to “work with” the spirits

Bat eared fox(//á`a.b KKG)

( ≠Kh !koohab)































Bat eared fox




























Bat eared fox

Anus (gland?) 

















































































(H2247) for bad winds, child wears on necklace 

(Kh2110,7,8,9) dry, grind, mixed with aardwolf anal gland for children’s sickness (“staep”) (Kh111) use male fox(Kh2114)  stops “tokolosies” bothering adults (Kh2120) and babies (Kh2127) and jackals liver and ostrich egg-shell (Kh2128)add black storm wood plant(Kh2130) jackal?

(Kh2133) plus porcupine stomach, wear in neck pouch or feed – for babies

(Kh2112) plus ostrich egg-shell, drink if unwell

(D39)dried, ground with ostrich egg-shell, children’s sickness (D19) may add part of hui xaris (big grey bird, stomach) kudu horn; (D40) plus jackal liver, porcupine /garas (stomach / intestine??), ostrich egg-shell, children’s sickness

(N/D36) for children: plus jackal  liver, excrement of white chicken, ostrich egg-shell, “clean stomach of child” follow with marijuana if possible

(N/D31) for children’s sickness mix with red pepper, //ao ≠guis (plant), hedgehog stomach, aardwolf anus – drink

(D (W-R59)) For headaches, tie onto hair with small piece of string

(D22) plus aardwolf anal gland “to stop kids getting different types of wind” – plus human urine as massage for baby

(D40) plus jackal liver and porcupine stomach

(D43) rub into small cuts made on children

(D47) mix with fat and part of duba lizard (monitor), rub on throat and drink, for tonsils

(N23) children’s sickness, mixed with aardwolf anal gland, ostrich egg-shell “Doepa”, “Duiwelsdrek” (commercial medicines) – in neck pouch

(N25) children’s sickness, mix ostrich egg-shell, oryx horn, hyena dung “Nama powder”: massage, give powder then wear black /ores thread

(N26) children’s sickness ostrich egg-shell, “Dueba”, aardwolf anal gland, ground and mixed in teaspoon with milk or gripewater, or Behoedmiddel (commercial)

(N33) dry, grind and pour in ear for child’s ear pain, plus aardwolf anal gland for children

(Nh34) ‘silver fox’? hide in an opening of a house to chase away //gauwa (evil spirits)

(N35) plus jackal liver, porcupine stomach, ostrich egg-shell, for children, grind put on tongue

(N37) children’s sickness and for sores

(Nh23, Nh2195) tie high up in a tree to keep the //gauwas (dead people) away

(Nh2192, Nh2204) hang them in a tree (don’t know why)

(Nh96) dries, pounds, rubs on body to keep “hyena people” away while sleeping

(!K63) drink for cough or chest problems

(!K99)grind, put in mouth, rub on anterior fontanel, down spine to coccyx to stop wind “taking” small children (witchdoctor thing and San thing)

(H50) dry, grind, eat if exhausted

(H2240) dry and rub on for pain, grind, wear and rub for children, drink for vomiting (H2241) rub in abdominal cuts for child sickness and ‘bad winds’

(H52,59, 72) dry and swallow as poison emetic (H56) also put on roof (to stop spirits?)

(H66) plus anus hair, children wear it, “a perfume, just for smell”

(H2247) as emetic

(H74) plus !hui //hams stomach (large grey bird), for children

(H2208, H2215) plus ostrich egg-shell for children’s sickness (H2212, H2220) ostrich egg-shell plus aardwolf anal gland, drink and rub into cuts

(H2235) plus aardwolf anal gland, cook and drink for stomach and body

(H2210) unspecified (children’s sickness?)

(H2211, H2214, H2221)children’s necklace, drink, for “bad winds”

(J101) dry, pound put on a baby’s nose to protect from winds, put in fire to chase bad things from the house

(J2143) mix with sa (plant) keep dead people away

(Nh102) cook and drink for headaches and all over body sickness


(D25) plus jackal liver, ostrich egg-shell, sugar, for children’s sickness


(H66) smoke in pipe or cook and drink for cough


(H62) it is a “defender”/ “ancestor”, //Gâuas

BirdKori Bustard

!huib (!ui )

( !guib)

(!hui //hom)

(hui xaris)





(D42) for children’s sickness (D18) mix with !hutubi insect, in water as drink or eat, or cut and rub in, for children’s sickness

(D19) children’s sickness

(D72) mix into children’s medicine with garlic, kudu horn, ostrich egg-shell

(D2249) mix stomach contents with the Acacia beetle and gum (acacia?)

(H2211) for child chest problems, put in water and drink

(H2214) unspecified

(H2215) mix with ostrich egg-shell !gutubis [ !hutubis ] insect, kidney of the jackal for children’s medicine

(H2216) grind, sow into a cloth for children to wear around the neck for sickness protection

Bird(Kori bustard?)

Kai /anis (big bird)




Tie thread to baby





(D46) tie a baby bird’s leg into its nest, the mother bird loosens the thread with a stick so the bird can fly, witchdoctors take the stick

(D73) mix with ostrich egg-shell, aardwolf dung, rub the body of the child for sickness (wind ≠oab) protection

Bird≠ereb (“very small”, Prinia species)


Nest (D18) for stomach pain (drink nest cooked in water?)



“the very tiny bird” (≠ereb?)



!Ga (?)






Whole body






(D/He 47) roast, put in mouth, blow into mouth of child with sores



(J2159) if a child cries too much, cook the bird, wash the child with the soup



(Kh2111) ‘Koursful’ bird flying over gives you a temperature, makes you sick

(Kh2118) blue falk (?) whose leg shakes causes sickness

(D (W-R65) birds will build a nest from your cut hair, it will make you mad

(D (Schatz) if children play with live birds they will become sick

(H54, 56) //goris (//gores, gori anis) bird shadow !gou (!goo) the baby, makes it sick (H60) passes through mother’s milk to anterior fontanel (H57) //gores child coughs like the noise of the bird, take sweat and rub it on the head of the child (H59) also !nanas bird, common children’s illness cause. If you go under the nest it will make you sick.

(H72) cannot eat, child coughs with noise of bird ≠naubeb (Korhaan (gen.)Eupodotis)

(H222) “Ocker baster?”, red tailed bird, //go-ās, makes children sick by its shadow. If anterior fontanel goes in put soil on the child’s head(Ju86) rub mothers milk and white ash on anterior fontanel to protect from passing birds (Subbah (Tsaba? any bird?) sometimes add plant Subbah !gaea (bird plant) and fumigate child

(J95) Tsaba /kae name of sickness causing bird (eagle?)

Treat with plant Tsama !hai

(J2154) //gam bird shadow sickness ( mid size, big wings, moving feet, black, feathers go in and cause sickness in baby) (Ju2171) /na /num sickness, baby can’t see, anterior fontanel stops moving

(J2165) big bird shouts over baby and puts its body into baby – fingers spasm like bird feet

(J2176) when the Kori bustard flies and he picks his wings up and lowers them a little while then you know it is going to rain

(J2177, J2186) child sickness , //gauwa hah bird, feathers into skin of child

(J2181) rub breast milk and ash on anterior fontanel of child made sick by bird shadow

(!K99) /gou bird; the shadow takes the child’s heart

(Nh102) child makes Kah bird sound, takes the child’s heart

(Nh2187) use tsaree “Birdwood”, rub on child and feathers come out of the body

(Nh2191) bird covers the child with its shadow ( “ //gai = to sit on !aba to climb on, khaba something that gets into you and is still angry and gets in your heart

(Nh2192) !Gau bird flies over and makes people sick

(Nh2202) if you eat the Kori bustard you will never sit down

Caracal( Rooikat) Liver (Kh2119) dry and powder the liver, put in mouth of babies (children’s medicine) (N 27( just mentioned))
Chameleon   ? 


(D43) makes cuts in glabella, rub in for eye problems 

(Nh2195) parts used by someone wanting to do evil against you – “black people”

(Nh2197) dry, mix with herbs for body pains, killing it also stops the rain  –old people (H2229) killing it stops the rain

Dassie (Hyrax)Rock Dassie? Dung* might overlap with solidified urine? (D7) put on sucking cuts so the blood “moves down”(D20) “cleans the blood” for back pain, after miscarriages to aid pregnancy

(D18) cook drink for post-birth pain (D19) plus kidney pain and back pain (D21) “cleans” placenta (N/D28, 36) drink to help birth (D40) drink after giving birth if uterus not moving down or not bleeding well (N/D32) uterus problems, “cleans uterus”, stops pain, urine not flowing ( !áˆù /garu “ dassie scatterings”? )

(D25) cook and drink for bladder pain, pain in arteries, for “Men bitten by women” (coitus during menstruation)

(D29) grind, put in tea or coffee for high blood pressure

(N23) menstruation pain, uterus and back pain

(N24, 33) “cleans” uterus

(N34) drink for stomach pain

(N27) drink for yellow eyes and not feeling well

(H2240) help bleeding after giving birth


Duiker  Fat 



(!K58) wash body with the fat and ≠khoe plant to attract a duiker 

(!K76) a spirit defender

(Nh2189) //Gauwa sometimes changes into him (the animal just disappears, even if shot)

(Nh2204) people change into him

Eland Chest bone(sternum)


Cricoid cartilage (Adam’s apple)



Leg flesh (arm)

































































Uterine water



(H2219) grind for coughing and “bad winds” 


(H72) eat for a person coughing, also rub skin into cuts on chest and the cervico-dorsal junction



(J2141, J2143) rub into cuts made onto bicep and shoulder blade to make a young boy a good hunter



(Kh2128) mix dewlap skin with fat, rub children that come to visit whose “sweat is weaker”

(J2167) the n/um k’ao can massage with fat

(J2181) mixed with ostrich egg-shell to rub on anterior fontanel of children (long time ago – now Vaseline or sour milk)

(Nh2188) apply to children to make spine and neck tough (old)

(Nh2207) apply for back pain and waist pain, also mix with ostrich egg-shell and rub on child’s chest for flu

(!K58)  (coughing?)

(!K99) use fat from top of eland kidney in healer’s tortoise shell

(H64) rub fat into chest cuts, protects from coughing arising from young person stealing and eating the animal when grandfather is hunting


(H60), scrape and rub into cuts on chest for incessant coughing (H2230) sniff and smoke for heart problems

(H66) rub into cuts for protection from coughing

(H2231) mix with eland meat and fat from under heart, burn, rub into cuts for child’s incessant coughing

(H2233) rub into cuts on children as protection from bad winds, (H2234) protection from “smell” of eland and eating chest fat

(!K/D61) burn, peel, grind rub into cuts, wear as necklace for /hai//aib (hai!nadom) – coughing when nothing comes out



(H2241) children wear it for bad winds

(H60) use for sucking where pain is

(J2172) mix with a plant. One healer also uses it on another


(!K58) if arguing, eating eland and kudu together makes you cough; if coughing an old man rubs eland meat on your chest

(N33) healthy animal, dry skin on roof, rub into cuts in child


(D18) grind in fire, give as a drink; (D31)make a chord with a threaded dog ear for children to wear (shoulder to adjacent underarm) if very sick

(N37) children wear thread to make them strong / protection

(D39) rub into cuts on children for strength / protection (D43) the wind smell makes you sick if an “eland cut” person passes behind you

(Kh2128) throat (dewlap), make necklace for a child with a weak chest //hō-dommi (throat skin), also grind dewlap skin (drink?)

(H/N2214, H50) eland skin necklace for wind protection, (H2208) fumigate in smoke of burnt eland skin or rub on anterior fontanel, protects from strong smell / wind

(H2212, HSchatz) children wear skin so they can safely eat eland meat (H53) if not they get incessant bloody diarrhoea

(H68) children wear skin necklace so other children do not !gau him

(H56) children wear for chest pain and coughing

(H54,H55,H2219, H2216, H2239) rub into cuts on chest to protect children from strong winds or to treat excessive coughing (H2240) excessive child’s cough called eland sickness ,!khan-/aeb

(!K58) cut marks and rub ground skin in for coughing

(Nh98) wear skin to protect children, or thread if no eland

(Nh97) children wear eland skin (“given by parents to kill other children, like Devil’s Claw”)


(Kh2111) drink if thirsty


(D5, N/D31) a child with cuts with eland rubbed in can make other children without the cuts sick – the “wind” ( ≠oab) goes into them from the strong child

(D46) first people used the eland, but it made people sick so then they used the skin of the eland

(N/D36) animal doesn’t get sick, old time children wore skin reim, it made them ≠khaisa (lit.wake up) – grow up strong

(N34, H2210) children die if playing with those with eland cuts, don’t use anymore

(Kh2110, Kh2118, Kh2122) he cries when he is shot

(Khwe dam 2139) only elderly can eat chest or your feet swell

(J2142) if another is cooking it you cannot help yourself to the pot or you become sick

(J2146) throwing cooked eland at someone makes them sick

(J2154) if young women eats chest of eland it prevents production of baby milk

(J2167) fat next to the heart makes people (especially children) cough (because first meat to hit ground when the animal lies down) (J2172) chest fat is n/um, not for the young

(J2184) children should not eat the marrow

(J2176) guard your eland meat, keep your weapons near (jealousy)

(J2177) use the smell of the eland to heal, the n/um k’ao brings in the smell to heal

(J80) god lets you ride an eland or oryx when in “trance”

(H68) cook, take the soup rub on stomach and bottom of children so they can eat eland; snake in eland forehead hair; eland looks to sunrise at death

(H60) mix meat with //hubu plant, rub in cuts between eyebrows to make a successful hunter

(H2222) soxa if pregnant or breast feeding

(H2231) a soxa animal with a snake that lives in the forehead hair; if people without eland in cuts eat it they cough non-stop

(H2232) young people cannot eat the legs and arms of the eland

(H2238) an elder must cook and eat  eland before the young

(HSchatz) //Gamab sends an eland with a rope up to him

(!K) cut marks and rub in chest fat so women can eat lower back meat

(Nh96) dance with the eland

(K2111, K2112) an eland cries like your wife when you hit her

Elephant Dung 















































(D7) wash with boiled dung water for swollen legs, also place warm dung on them(D12) boil and heat legs with the dung

(D15) wash body if hand or leg is swelling

(D16) for whole body sickness or a pain, inhale smoke of dung and mopane tree leaves and /hûnis (shepherds tree)

(D21) in water as a wash for leg pain

(D22, D25) just heard

(N23) soak swollen legs and feet in warm water

(N37) in children’s medicine

(N42) wash whole body or wash legs and feet if painful

(!K58) put on fire, sniff smoke for malaria headaches

(!K99) boil and wash for painful legs

(!K/D61) for swelling, wash whole body; if collapse put on fire and breathe smoke

(J2143) smoke so dead people don’t return to make them sick

(J2159) burn in hut to help sleeping

(J2167) put in warm water and wash yourself if dreaming too much – the dung must have urine on top

(J2173) – for excessive dreaming (J2171) tried for dead people disturbance – no good

(J2176) dung? – ‘to deal evil’, also hyena – all local tribes use them

(J2186) burn it to drive elephants away

(Nh2199) use to kill others – a black people thing

(Nh2207) boil and drink if whole body weak or use as body wash

(Nh97) put on fire, inhale smoke for unspecified sickness

(H59) sore, swollen feet, warm them with dung; cook and wash whole body not feeling well, also chicken pox (don’t dry yourself with a towel)

(H68) not feeling well, put on coals in house, let smoke permeate

(H2210, H2213, H2234) for swollen legs

(H2216) coal on dung, sniff smoke for bleeding nose

(H2222) mix warm water, salt, dung and wash for leg pain. Cook and drink or sniff burning dung smoke for children’s bird sickness (like epilepsy, from shadow of bird)

(H/D2223) for swollen feet (H2238) in warm water, better to rub on in the veld, body wash if not feeling well

(H65,H69,H57,H71,H72,H2228) leg pain(H54,H2240) wash in warm water (H52) put on coals in the house to stop ‘machite’ people (‘witchcraft’)

(H2233) stomach pain

(H2239) not feeling well, warm water wash, put in tin with coal and sniff smoke


(H2234) just heard

Gemsbok / Oryx Unspecified(//khâes /hâub ?)















Belief / ritual / practice

(N24) ‘Nama powder’ for children. Make cuts and rub in ostrich egg-shell, gemsbok horn, kidney of the bat eared fox, hyena dung and klipspringer /hâub ( fat?)(N/D31) unspecified medical use


(D7) use the horn for sucking blood

(N/D31) for children’s medicine


(N33) kudu and oryx those are the animals who do not get the sicknesses, they are the healthy animal that is why the elder people use the oryx and kudu as a medicine. Rub the skin into ‘medicinal cuts’ in the neck and between the breasts to prevent children’s sickness

(N 37) children’s wear a thread to protect them from other ‘potent’ children. Weaker than the eland thread


(D2249) traditional ‘praise’ used when eating: ‘the west wind falling on top of the bushy oryx, whose back fat is eaten by the jackal

(D46) skin blankets along with a wooden tray for separating seeds ( ≠aub) given by an intended husband to his prospective bride’s parents (?)

(Ju80) when you get into ‘trance’ the god lets you ride it; it is an eland or an oryx

(Ju85) [ when dancing ] you can climb on any animal, giraffe, oryx, also on a string you can walk on

(Ju79) kill, cook, wash in the soup of the meat only eaten by the old people (chest and flanks //gaua  ( pron.long au), light a fire and sing and dance oryx songs

(D42) old time they dug pit traps with oryx horns and placed them upright at the bottom

(H55) the oryx is soxa. If you kill him he changes. You see the horns are straight up and when he is shot he changes into another animal and he lies down

(H60) young people cannot eat oryx and adults can’t eat the liver, heart and intestines

Giraffe Fat 






(J2181) for a child afflicted with a bird’s shadow, the Basarwa used to rub ostrich egg-shell mixed with giraffe or eland fat on the anterior fontanel. Now use Vaseline or milk fat(Nh2207) for child flu, mix fat, or eland fat, with roasted, ground ostrich egg-shell and rub on chest of child


(Nh96) healing songs

(J79) take meat from the lower left abdomen and above the ribs on both sides, eat it, wash in the “soup”, make a fire and dance singing giraffe songs. That meat [ from those areas, the chest and flanks ] is //gaua (long au)

Hare Urine 






(Kh 2111) for pain in the ears(Kh2130) mixed with the blood of the tortoise for ear pain


(Kh2115) the animal used for the ‘poison business’, people use it for children


(H, Schatz) women may not eat the hare

(Kh2114) women cannot eat it because it is the only animal that menstruates

(Nh102) some animals can make you sick. You do not know them. That is why the wind or smell can make you sick. I nearly died when I ate the spring hare

(Ju2186) ‘healing dance’ song

(Nh2191) lives on the moon, you can see him pulling something like a branch

(Nh2196) people say there is a hare on the moon but when I look well it is a person pulling a tree branch

(Nh2201) the old people used to say there is a hare on the moon because you can see its ears

Hartebeest Belief (Nh2200) a child should not eat !ghaiee (?), steenbok, springhare, hartebeest. If the parents eat the head of the hartebeest the children will have ear problems
Honey badger (Ratel) Anal gland 




(!Ko2175) burn the anal gland. The smell keeps snakes away(Nh2198) to treat a snake bite. Rub it into medicinal cuts on a person

(Nh2204) it is tsso [ potent / potency]. Dry it, grind it, put into medicinal cuts. It is medicinal. Some people use the hyena’s bottom

(Nh2206) an animal used for tsso

Hyena Anal gland (Nh2204) unspecified(Nh2198) some use it to bring good luck. It is a black people’s thing







‘Black backed’




















Kidney and Liver




















(D20) pound with horse hoof, ostrich egg-shell, aardwolf anal gland, sugar, for children’s sickness(D25) ostrich egg-shell, bat eared fox stomach, sugar, “poo poo” out dirtiness for children


(D40) plus porcupine stomach, kidney of bat eared fox, ostrich egg-shell


(N23) plus ostrich egg-shell, stomach of porcupine, sugar, for children, called “Hottentot Medicine”

(N20) child medicine

(N33) liver, garlic, /goa plant, ostrich egg-shell, Bolmeister (commercial), sugar for children up to 6 months

(N35) bat eared fox kidney, porcupine stomach, ostrich egg-shell

(N37) liver for kids sickness


(Kh2120) and kidneys of bat eared fox, anal gland aardwolf for babies with staep and tokolosies bothering babies

(Kh2128) mixed with fat for massage

(!Ko2175) roast kidney to take out the blood, dry in sun, mix into children’s medicine, kidney is the strongest, it makes the child vomit


(N/D 28, D43) /giri haib jackal plant for stomach pain, cook,

drink or chew

(Kh2114) ostrich egg-shell, burn and grind, sugar, jackals wood

Klipspringer Klipbok Fat (/hâub? ) 




(N24) ‘Nama powder’ for children. Make cuts and rub in ostrich egg-shell, gemsbok horn, kidney of the bat eared fox, hyena dung and klipspringer fat 

(N27) burn it, grind and sniff the powder for fainting and blacking out



























































































































(H53) from top of kidney as part of a sickness medicine in a container used by old people(H2208) kidney fat mixed in a tin with teeth of puffadder, take tin into bush to treat snakebite

(J101) rub on people to help pain, then cook and drink koreb plant


(H2216) burn, grind hoof, rub into cuts made on chest (for children?)

(H2217) or skin? For too much coughing rub into cuts in the chest

(H2234) if eland hoof no good use kudu, scrub it, grind, drink in warm water for children’s sicknesses


(D17) put in fire and sniff for sicknesses

(D19) children’s sickness /gôaron //os ( “ meningitis ” ), with ostrich egg-shell, //huribe //kha plant, garlic,; burn, grind, mix; for hyperventilating children also use burnt ground horn

(D21) put on fire, grind or wear a piece as a necklace. Both for kids to prevent sickness eg tooth diarrhoea

(D/N31) horn and skin

(H52) top of horn and !huxuris (beetle) for child’s soft anterior fontanel and chest depression

(H54) put ground skin in cuts on chest of child for prevention and protection

(H55) children wear on necklace

(H68) children wear horn on necklace for protection from other children, or use skin and horn mixed, burnt, ground, drunk

(H2215) children wear the tip of the horn for sickness protection

(H2228) seen people use top of horn but does not know why

(H2241) children wear it for ‘ bad wind ’

(!K/D61)cut, roast, grind, mix with Vaseline, rub child’s body, also wear as necklace for children coughing and protection from other children’s wind

(J2159) to suck out snake poison


(!K58) if you argue and eat kudu and eland meat together you get a cough. To treat an old man must take the meat and rub it on the chest of each person – also rub the skin into a forehead cut between eyebrows to “bring home the meat”

(!K/D61) cut, blacken in fire, grind, mix with Vaseline, rub on newborn to make them fat and remove wrinkles

(J2141, J2145) hunting, for a small boy to make him a good hunter take arm meat, soften on fire, rub into small cuts on proximal and distal bicep and shoulder blade


(D1) and ostrich egg-shell, put in fire, grind, rub into small cuts for ≠gurub, ‘leg pain’

(D3) plus ostrich egg-shell, rubbed into cuts for //aûtas; for mothers not producing milk, make small cut on each breast put in ground skin and dai /gameb (milk plant)

(D4) kid’s sickness, sternum protrudes, vomiting and diarrhoea, make small cuts on chest, add ostrich egg-shell – stay 3 days in the house, don’t touch red meat, black cooking pot and water

(D5) plus ostrich egg-shell, brown in fire for kid’s sickness put in cuts over D4 vertebra, top central sacrum, below umbilicus, plus massage and confinement in house; for heart  plus ostrich egg-shell in cuts, plus wear a neck pouch, !ores, containing !hutubis insect and part of top of goat heart – wear until drops off

(D7) if food not good ( to clear out dirtiness ) plus ostrich egg-shell, in fire, grind put in water and drink and massage

(D14) for children with stuib (chest pain), wear thread of skin

(D15) for  //âutas, slaughter a goat, wrap person in skin, massage, make cuts on chest, over C7 vertebra, low back, rub in kudu skin and ostrich egg-shell

(D16) mix with ostrich egg-shell and sniff for a cold

(D18)  put in fire, grind give as a drink, make cuts and rub in; also make a reim, a //hobe, tie it around a child over one shoulder to under the other arm, for children’s sickness

(D39) make cuts put in skin from head of kudu

(D47) wear skin thread around child’s shoulder, male kudu for boys, female for girls

(N9) plus ostrich egg-shell and black stinky beetle, gamabes ( beetle) for stuib ( chest pain )rub in cuts anterior and posterior rib 4/5 space, or makes the marks where the pain is; plus ostrich egg-shell, for children to drink if they have diarrhoea

(N26) for children’s sickness (/gôaron os)

(N33) rub into cuts on children for sickness protection

(N/D36) children wear a skin thread on shoulder to “ wake up ”, be strong

(N37) children wear a thread to be strong

(H50) use skin from forehead, rub into cuts made on a child to protect them from other “strong” children, some cuts in lower back; also make a necklace with  a piece of horn to protect children

(H53) wear as necklace then they can safely eat kudu meat

(H2208) children wear thread of kudu skin, stronger than the eland, to protect them from eland wind


(J2185) seeing a kudu means you will be lucky

(Nh2194) healers cannot eat just any bit, not the //gabbeh only the soft meat, no sinew “or our tsso will not work”

(H2208) good luck to dream of ( unlike lion and rhino)

(H2209) good to dream of

(H2210) he is /geiai man ( healer) if he dreams of a kudu it is good, he can ride the kudu

(H/Na) heard a man could run and change into a kudu, not sure if it is just gossip

(H2215) the xaib is a soxa animal, if you kill it don’t argue or you will get stomach pain; if breast feeding you cannot eat kudu or child will die unless you wear tip of horn around your neck

(H2244) Bees, kudu and oryx if people dream of these they go to try and find them – a lucky dream

Leopard Belief (D13) ancestors fire arrows of sickness, they come sometimes as a lion, leopard or snake(J85) sees them when in ‘trance’ when dancing, along with the lion

(H, Schatz) to the left of //Gamab ( divinity ) is a leopard, to the right a big snake; not eaten by medicine man

(H60) if young eat giraffe front leg marrow they will be hurt by a leopard

Lion Fat and mane 





(D18) Herero use the mane and make cuts on each scapular and rub in lion fat. If you are in the veld you can then feel if the lion is near; Seru plant , squeeze into the fire to keep lions and other dangerous animals away 

(D13) ancestors fire arrows of sickness, they come sometimes as a lion, leopard or snake

(!K76) he has the /gais of the lion along with 23 others. It is a chief /gais along with the rain and snake

(!K65) sees lions around the fire when dancing the ‘trance dance’

(Nh96) if someone angers me I change into a lion, also to travel long distances

(Nh97) the lions you see in the healing dance are the traditional healers walking around

(Nh2189) I work with the wind of animals, I can sleep without trouble by lions; lions usually come to the dance, I change into a lion

(Nh2192) use smoke of a woody shrub, called xam to keep lions away

(J82) the old could change into lions

(J93) use !Gai plant to keep lions away, used it at Gousha

(J94) he turns into a lion to stop lions killing him; your dead father might appear as a lion to chase others away; when sleeping his soul goes out as a lion’s body, he sees lions walking and in the air

(J87, J85, J2141, J2154) use plant Zow /o to keep lions away, they smell the smoke

(J85) sees lions and leopards while in trance

(J2151) lions that come to the dance come with the whirlwinds, dead people can pretend to be lions

(J2161) lion plants are used to make a dog angry

(J2167) in old days when the moon seemed covered and it seemed something bad was to happen medicine men would trance and say lions are passing. They would tell them to keep passing

(N37) plant xam haib ( lion plant )for children’s running diarrhoea and adult uterus problems

(H60) Hai//om in Namatoni eat lion and hyena but the Hai//om here don’t; young cant eat giraffe leg marrow or will be hurt by a leopard or lion

(H71) if you eat the meat of a lion, the one who cuts it will be eaten by a lion, it is soxa

(H72) if you eat lion when you die the lions will come and dig up your grave

(H2215) mostly only healers change into animals like the lion, /hauus (?) and steenbok, the lion, xam is soxa

(H2218) use tembah plant to keep lions away, put it in a tin and burn it

(H2219) heard the !kung change into lions, does not know if it is true (H2240, H2241) elders told them but they have never seen it

(H2228) in old days a special man trained in the field would get feelings, !gaigu, a tight cramp, when dangerous clawed animals were around

(H2235) if a lion makes a noise close to the house everyday you know somebody is dead

(H2243) at Etosha recently a !kung man changed into a lion

(H2239) if a lion is crying it is a message of death

(H2244) if you want to go somewhere but you dream of a lion or a snake you must not go; put plant, xam hais (lion plant) on the fire so lions do not come


(Kh2110) his step father’s people changed into lions, when he was 6 or 7 years old he saw a man change into a blade of grass

(Kh2111) in 1970 saw a man change into a lion; the lion is good luck, use lion wood plant for good luck

(Kh2118) burn the mother wood plant if the smoke turns it will tell you which way the lion is going

(Kh2120) the old people used to make cuts and put in animal ( lion?) fat mixed with poison so the lions can’t hurt you

(Kh2121) do not swear at a lion or he will come back at night and kill all your sheep

(Kh2121) an old Bushman at Kaka Kama used to change into a lion

(Kh2124) this long grass is called  lion’s beard

(Kh2126) uses lion wood plant, //ha, found in the KTNP

(Kh2133) use grass wood, lion wood, luck wood plants in necklace   for children, also with a pouch with porcupine stomach and kidney (of bat eared fox?), for children’s sickness

(Khwe Dam2139) people change into lions in Zambia,


































Gwarrho (?)


Snake lizard


King lizard









































































Unspecified / ground whole?












































(D18) for gonorrhoea take blood of male goat, insert it into cuts and rub person with blood from the goat and the very big lizard, the //nare or !nonab (monitor)


(D4) the big lizard !nonab, or //nareb pour fat in for ear problems (D5) for ear pain

(Nh2200) the fat of the monitor for ear problems

(H2208) rub monitor lizard fat on your shins it makes the snakes run – still uses

(H2213) cook, take the big lizard fat, pour a teaspoon in for sore ears. Massage leg pain with monitor fat

(H2216) unspecified medicinal use

(H2227) for ear problems (H22246) ear infection (H56) ear pain, fat of monitor (H59) use back fat of monitor for ear pain, things come out

(D30) make cuts, wrist, hand, chest, C5 vertebra, shoulders, knees, ankles, put monitor fat in to be strong, it kills pregnant women’s babies if they meet them – done by jealous infertile women

(J101) use Lakavan fat, rub on body for heart attack, also can drink, also pour in ear if something goes in

(Nh102) massage with Lakavan fat for joint pain


(D18) the //nare or !nonab, the one some eat, use for heart problems


(Kh2119) also the bag next to where he urinates, give to a child to make them grow big and strong


(D30) wear around wrist and waist to be strong



(J2143) make cuts and put in the gwarrho lizard to stop a snake or scorpion hurting you

(N24) dry the ‘snake lizard ’, grind it and put it in cuts for snakebite. The medicine is called Jod /ao !ga

(N27) rub in the king lizard to protect from snakebite

(D47) a lizard, he bites you, difficult to kill with six legs, when the throat swells mix the lizard with fat and kidney of the bat eared fox ( //ab ) and rub on the throat and drink – the lizard smells like the ‘duba’ in the shops. The lizard is good for swelling,, even chest pain and intestine problems, for intestine put a little bit in the mouth and nose and belch



(Kh2114) Kojomander, when he climbs a pole and taps it the clouds start coming

(Kh2115) the gorgi / gorki / akerdis calls the rain; he lays his eggs under the ground and calls the rain to wet them so that they hatch

(J2161) if the //goroo lizard climbs a tree and shouts at the rain it will not come

(J2162) if he shoots a lizard (unspecified) there will be clouds in the sky

(!Ko2174) if the gohoonah lizard lifts its head it will rain ( kumkwatsee in Tswana )

(Nh2191) if the lizard with the blue throat is on a post when you are visiting it means you will be given some meat; (Nh2204) always see the blue necked one but does not know the meaning (Nh2196) don’t know if it is true it didn’t happen to me; the gecko is poisonous

(Nh2198) the lizard with stripes is poisonous, the t’//nanu

(H2208) a lizard looks at the clouds and makes rain

(H2229) if an agama is looking at the clouds it will not rain


(J2167) the big one in the tree tzaqan, rock monitor

(J2167) only the big one

(J2179, J2182) eats the monitor

(Nh2197) the big one

(Nh2205) parents used to eat the sorrobah monitor

(H2213) the monitor

(H/Na2214) the //nareh, the monitor

(D2249 ) praises: “the people kill the lizard and they don’t take out the fat and they put the lizard on the tree and they play the /gaihe, he jump up and says “I don’t want to be with you” then he dances and the people start talking about him and the lizard says “you can dance..I go”.

Millipede Body 







(D47 (Himba?) grind a dead one and put it in the eyes for eye sickness(J92) there is something like a snake called Goru , a worm (millipede??) you dry it, grind it, put it on bite and then it takes back all the poison. In the old days the people would use the worm, grind it and keep it by themselves


(Nh2188) don’t know if poisonous but it wounds you if it comes into contact with you when sleeping

(Nh2198) if it licks you a wound forms that does not get well quickly

(Kh2120) when lots of  the rain worms come out we know big rain is on its way

Mongoose Various: tongue. tail hair, fat, dung 






(H56) into a container of goat fat add the tongue, small black end of his tail (possibly hair, fat and dung of mongoose?),  animal called the /eb or /amo /aereb. Give it to a person bitten by a snake, it makes them vomit. Then cut and suck the wound. 

(J2162) Large grey mongoose, //how, gives bad luck


(J2144) banded mongoose

Ostrich Dung 





































































































































































Ritual / belief

(D7) burn it rub on sores ( smallpox sores?)(D15) grind, mix with Vaseline and rub on for swelling, eg, of arms or feet

(N37) for children’s burns

(N/D31) unspecified

(N/D32) mix with sugar, give sick babies to eat, You can also put some in your pocket for luck

(N/J100) unspecified

(J2141) mix with fat, light it and use the smoke to take out sickness, maybe for chest problems; if you eat ostrich egg-shell you might go crazy


(D3) for //âutas (spasticity) cut marks, rub in egg-shell and kudu skin “dirtiness”

(D4)  /gôaron //ob, heat and grind with kudu skin, give to drink, make cuts on the chest, rub in same with dirtiness

(D5) /gôaron //ob mix with kudu skin, burn and grind, ru into marks

(D7) stomach pain, (!nab?) mix with kudu skin, burn and grind, put in water and drink to clean the intestine

(D15) //âutas, ground with kudu skin, rub into cuts

(D16) old days, sniff ground with kudu skin for a cold

(D18) for leg pain, knot it together with goat tendon, hang goat metacarpals/tarsals on tendon, tie around the ankle for leg pain, ≠hurub; for headache, grind, mix with ground aardwolf dung, heat a person in a hole, pull them out and rub them with the mixture

(D19) /gôaron //ob, (doctor says meningitis) //huribe //kha plant, garlic, kudu horn, grind, mix give as medicine

(D20) children’s sickness, plus liver of jackal, horse hoof, anus of the aardwolf, some sugar

(D21) for various children’s sicknesses, burn and grind the shell, add sugar and plants Kamagu, /otsama, /ami nubis, !nubullari, !huxaro, give by mouth; for colds and fever in children, grind and rub the whole body

(D25) child medicine, plus jackal liver, stomach of bat eared fox, sugar

(D29) for cold or fever, roast until yellow or brown, rub the whole body, wrap them in a blanket, let them sleep; for child fever mix burnt shell and hyena dung, child then sleeps like a hyena. Sometimes add garlic and sugar

(D39) children medicine, dry, grind with bat eared fox kidney

(D40) /gôaron //ob, use with jackal liver, porcupine //garas (?) and  bat eared fox kidney

(D73) child medicine, with kai anis xaub, big bird dung, aardwolf dung, rub the body of the child with mixture

(N9) Stuib, chest pain, make cuts on chest, rub in kudu skin, ostrich egg-shell, and a black stinky beetle, gamabes ; to protect children from /gôaron //ob, make cuts on anterior and posterior chest, rub in ground egg-shell and kudu skin, also as a drink for children’s diarrhoea

(N23) children’s sickness, /gôaron //ob, plus dried kidney and liver of jackal; for heart problems eat ground shell

(N24) /gôaron //ob, Nama powder, rub on anterior fontanel, anterior and posterior chest, give to drink: add oryx horn, bat eared fox kidney, hyena dung

(N26) /gôaron //ob, add Dueba (commercial “Lennon” medicine), aardwolf anus, kidney of the bat eared fox; sick child who cannot talk, !gome, make a necklace pouch with egg-shell, kidney of bat eared fox and the plants ≠khan, !guxa

(N27) /gôaron //ob, plus daggha, hyena dung, jackal liver

(N/D32) for child coughing and /gôaron //ob, cook, give a little on a teaspoon and, or, rub on forehead and back of neck

(N33) child colds, grind rub on anterior fontanel, if not breathing well rub on whole body – call the medicine, ostrich egg-shell, given to a new born, !huitsa, it means , when born he doesn’t know anything, that medicine given  to that child is just to teach him, its the first thing that comes to his mouth. For the ages , if he a month you use the others, but if maybe six days you only use the shell of the ostrich. When older add jackal liver, dry /goa plant, Bolmeister (commercial medicine), sugar – up to 6 months years old

(!K/D61) child fever, wear as necklace, grind and give to drink

(!K65) gives the beads  to be worn to cool people down and let the devils know they are there – use it as a medicine because the ostrich walks like a person

(!K99) wear beads around waist for runny stomach, around the neck for neck pain, drink ground egg-shell powder for diarrhoea

(Nh96) old days, pound and rub on body, mixed with //koreb plant, for people with a flu type cold

(Nh98) to stop foetus being “bewitched”, grind and rub on pregnant women

(Nh102) for body pain, tie beads around waist or ankles

(Nh2188) tie beads around children to make neck and spine strong

(Nh2192) roast, grind and give to children with a cough

(Nh2195) general children’s medicine of child flu, wear beads around waist, neck, ankle

(Nh2200) children sickness, roast, grind, mix with fat, milk fat or Vaseline, rub on, give some to drink; wear necklace for a neck problem

(Nh2204) tie beads on waist and neck, for children “although I have not been told yet how it helps”

(Nh2205) for child flu, burn, grind, mix with fat, rub on, also makes them strong

(Nh2207) roast, grind feed to kids (unspecified illness), add to giraffe or eland fat and rub on chest of child with flu. To help them grow strong tie beads around the waist

(H54) if child breathing is difficult, roast, grind and give to drink

(H55) for a cold in babies, grind and rub on chest and under feet

(H56) for child chest problems, grind, cook and drink

(H59) child coughing, grind, mix with breast milk, drink

(H74) /gôaron //os, roast, grind with kidney of bat eared fox and part of !hui //hamsI (kori bustard)  bird, give to drink and rub body

(H2210) children’s medicine, (with aardwolf dung?), kidney of bat eared fox

(H2212) for children, grind, mix with bat eared fox kidney, aardwolf anal gland, give to drink or rub into medicinal cuts

(H2213) for babies, mix with kidney of bat eared fox, put on anterior fontanel and rub on children

(H2215) for children’s sickness, mix with kidney of bat eared fox and the kori bustard’s stomach

(Kh2112) in a neck pouch for babies, alongside !koohah ( bat eared fox ); can also drink if body not feeling nice

(Kh2114) children’s medicine, browned in fire, ground , mixed with sugar, jackal’s wood, kidney of bat eared fox, also used for the people that “have the dirty tracks – that walk with poison, now human and later tokolosie”

(Kh2118) in babies medicine with jackal’s liver, !koohab (bat eared fox), and plants kalmoos, garlic, harntskill (fruit)

(Kh2119) in babies medicine, roast, grind add to baby powder; for headache, roast, grind mix with fat or vaseline and rub on head

(Kh2127) children’s medicine with aardwolf anus gland, jackal’s liver bat eared fox ( bakoor) kidneys

(Kh2128) grind for children’s medicine

(Kh2130) burn it, grind it, throw it on a baby’s burn

(Kh2132) burn, grind mix with plants for babies that have fits (staeb)

(J101) tie beads around waist for back ache

(J2172) to make a baby strong give it a necklace of ostrich egg-shell

(J2176) for a child with fluif  (?) burn, grind, mix powder with fat; grind and sniff to help nose bleeding

(J2181) for child afflicted with bird shadow, Basarwa rub egg-shell mixed with fat on the anterior fontanel. Used to be giraffe or eland fat, now Vaseline or milk fat

(J2182) if too much mucous coming out of  a child’s nose, grind it and give it to drink; also for aching eyes, roast and grind shell, mix with hot water, drop in eye

(J2186) children wear beads around waist to help protect from things like the //Gauwa ha bird shadow that takes the child’s shade; if child has flu or other problems, grind and mix with water to drink or mix with fat and rub on the anterior fontanel. You can use cow’s milk fat


(Nh98) for massage

(J101) to drink if feeling tired or sick

(H2215) rub on dry and cracked feet


(N/D31) burn and rub in eyes


(D1) for ≠gurub, leg pain, bind tendon (male or female) with rear goat leg tendon (male for male, female for female), hang on male goat astragalus, 6 in all , tie around ankle, back of knee, around waist, one posterior and one anterior abdomen; for ≠gurub, leg pain (stiff with knotted tendons) burn and grind with kudu skin, rub into cuts

(D43) ≠gurub, leg pain, tie the leg tendon, //apab, at ankle, knee and waist

(Nh2200) wear for body ailments


(H, Schatz) medicine man holds ostrich feathers when dancing, can’t eat ostrich

(H68) will not eat

(H2215) egg known as /ami -!ubis, when referred to as a medicine this changes to abu !noro

(J83) will not eat

(Nh19) when we are going hunting people must not call the name of the ostrich

Pangolin Shell / scale 





































































(D4) for nasal bleeding or a heart pumping too much, roast some shell and sniff the smoke(D14, D43) for heart problems, roast on fire, sniff the smoke (D15) or wear as necklace

(D21) for a heart pumping too much and for headaches, roast and sniff the smoke

(D22) for a heart pumping too much, roast , grind, give it to eat. Then hang a piece of shell on a black thread to be worn as a necklace with the shell over the heart. The thread must be black because it stops the different kind of winds

(D25) for heart problems, roast, eat a little, put a little in a cloth and wear as a necklace

(N24) wear on necklace for heart problems

(Kh2127) burn and grind, unspecified

(J/Na100) burn (unspecified)

(J101) for heart attack, dry on coals, grind and drink and wear as necklace, can also use the Lakavan (monitor) fat

(J2141) wear a scale on a necklace for a heart problem

(J2143) wear a scale on a necklace to protect your heart

(J2152) for children bleeding from the nose or with neck pain they wear a piece of shell on a necklace, it must not be long but tight

(J2167) if you cannot eat pangolin, the meat is not good for you and blood is running from your nose, take the scale, roast, grind and rub it into medicinal cuts made in the lower cervicals

(J2171) for a heart problem

(J2181) stop nose bleeding by burning, grinding and rubbing into cuts made on neck (cervico-dorsal area)

(J2182) if nose bleeding burn scale in fire, let blood drop on it while it is hot and the bleeding stops; for headaches roast, grind, mix with fat, make a cut in the temple and smear it in. Used to use sour milk, now you can use Vaseline. Never get a headache again. Black people use the nose to make you rich

(J2186) burn it, bleed on it and nose bleeding stops, also for heart problems

(!Ko2175) burn, grind and eat shell and wear around the neck when sick

(Nh102) for heart attack, roast, grind, eat powder and wear as necklace

(Nh2192) grind rub powder into cuts on the scalp (unspecified illness)

(Nh2193) if a child is bleeding to much, grind its shell and give to drink

(Nh2195) for children, wear as a necklace (unspecified)

(Nh2197) for neck pain or problems, wear a scale around the neck

(Nh2198) wear a scale for heart disease

(Nh2199) grind and rub into cuts for back ache and coughing

(Nh, 2207) use //ami (pangolin) scale for nasal bleeding. Make a hole in a scale and wear it on a necklace. It heals the heart beat in mental disturbance or if you are scared of stepping on bare cracked feet

(Nh98) for heart attack wear some on a necklace or roast, grind and eat some

(H52, H54) for heart pumping too fast and collapse, roast and sniff smoke – known as //homsoro ≠gaob , “pangolin heart”

(H59) for heart pumping too much, roast and sniff or peel and eat or put in warm water and eat

(H2219) for heart problems

(H2228) for heart problems, grind and sniff

(H2231, H2234) heat and sniff the smoke for heart problems

(H2235) if the heart is pumping too fast put it on the coals and sniff its smoke

(H2236) if the heart is painful or pumping too much grind and sniff it or eat it

(H2240) for heart problems and colds, wear the scale of heat it and sniff the smoke

(!K/D61) excessive heart pumping, chew and swallow the spit


(J2165) if pangolin is not good for you [ te eat ] and you go to the place where it is killed the blood will come out of your nose

(J2185) if a pangolin makes a whistling sound it is going to rain

(H2219) only certain men can eat it.  If a child eats a pangolin and dies, the body takes the shape of a pangolin (curls forward, arms like a mantis)

(H2230) lucky people find the pangolin

(!K) when he sees it he feels sore in his body, he has the /gais of the pangolin

Polecat Anus (anal gland) 













Belief (meat /smell)

(Kh2248) when dancing the polecat would come to the dance and he would lift it up and smear his face with its bottom(J2176) in the old days traditional doctors used to use it, the striped polecat (?) dāh , in Nharo it is daāh ; take out the anus.  Dry it, sniff the smell, the  smell went through their bodies.  That gave him the strength to smell disease, dance more and get into trance and heal the people.

(Nh2193, 2197) heard of its use but does not know why

(Nh2198) use to minimise the effect of a snakebite. Use it maybe because of its smell. They also rub it into medicinal cuts.

(Nh2199) it can cure many kinds of illness. Make a medicinal cut and rub it in. The power comes from the smell.


(Nh2189) if the healer clicks his fingers at you then that thing goes from him to you in the dance. You can dry part of its meat and cut it into your body or just its smell can be put into you.  The other doctor puts it into you, the one who already has its power,  //’ow ( smell). Small and wind are the things that go together.  It is the wind that we mean by the smell because the wind brings the smell to you

(Nh2203) the polecat does not come to him in the dance, he does not use it. But it does come to other dancing healers

(Nh2206) they don’t eat it because other people may use it in medicine

Porcupine Dung 


























































(Nh2200) seen people boiling it and drinking as a medicine(Nh2207) boil and drink to be healthy

(H2237) cook and drink for stomach pain


(J2168) general sickness (?) make medicinal cut over lower cervical vertebrae, rub in mixed with plant chôchweyah


(H59) eats very poisonous plants like koreb – the arrow poison tree – bitter things, therefore the liver is good, use for malaria, stomach pain, when the whole body is unwell

(Kh2111) keep it for the women and children because it is healthy for them as a medicine


(D2249) for children’s medicine because it eats a large variety of plants, many with medicinal properties

(D21) unspecified

(D40) in children’s medicine

(N23) in  children’s medicine

(N33) grind for children’s medicine ( !noab //oms ?)

(N34) for the children’s medicine. Use the bitter dung in the small stomach. He has two stomachs, a big and small one. We use it because he eats medicinal plants (!noa /hara  ‘contents of porcupine stomach’)

(N37) for children’s medicine

(N/D32) when child has the sickness with the head back (drepples in Afrikaans), cook and pour some (of the soup?) into a bottle. Give by the teaspoon. Can also cook and grind it and add sugar for the child to eat.

(!K/D61) cook and drink for leg or stomach pain, or if not feeling well (!noab //hom ‘porcupine rumen?’ )

(Kh2111) it is a medicine. He is a doctor (the porcupine). He eats everything healthy. It is big medicine

(Kh2114) if a woman eats a springhare and gets unwell she must take bitter medicine like porcupine stomach or gama gu the grass wood plant. The springhare is the only animal that gets periods. That is why it makes the woman unwell

(Kh2115) it cleans your stomach

(Kh2118) we can use his insides to make good medicine

(Kh2120) boil his stomach. He eats roots and that is very good if you have a stomach ache

(Kh15) works for the stomach and headaches

(Kh2131) for pains in the body

(Kh2133) for babies, grind and drink or feed or stitch into a neck pouch.

(Khwe2139) healers eat it

(J2143) mix with the plant !Ghai for when children are sick

(J2146) for children’s sickness

(Nh2198) never eat it, boil and drink the stomach contents for stomach problems

(Nh2207) boil and drink contents of stomach to be healthy

(H/Na2214) for the children medicine

(H2215) wash it before use, eat a little for colds and flu ( !noab //hom or !noab //khom ‘porcupine rumen’); dry and eat some for malaria, also for griep

(H2216) for /hawi /aob  ( high blood pressure )

(H2226) for stomach pain

(H2230) for AIDS, grind (mix  it in warm water  and drink?)


(!K76) when he meet with the porcupine he feels the thorns stick in his chest. It is one of his /gais

(J65) can’t eat the inside of a porcupine. It eats all sorts of poisonous things

(J82) one of the healing dances

(J2159) you cannot use the stomach, it is a poison. What he eats is poison, you will not see any animal eating that food. (J2162) Even the birds cannot eat it (J2167) the old people take it out  and throw it away (J2171) it has poison, you must throw it away

(J2181) the stomach is bitter and doesn’t taste good

(J2182) if you eat the stomach you will die. You must throw it high into a tree to stop the dogs eating it, it will kill them. You can put it on your arrows

(H68) can’t eat porcupine meat

(Nh102) good for him to eat

(Nh2187) when a witchdoctor wants to bewitch you he throws a /ghainee  (like a porcupine, but small, maybe  hedgehog)

(Nh2192) the stomach is very bitter. It is a poison (Nh2193) even dogs do not eat it

(Kh2124) he eats the plants long bookworm or goat horn rings – it has a long stem and the ka plant . You can dose sheep with them and big animals. It treats the worms in the head

(H2208, H2212) you can eat all the porcupine

(H/Na2214) use the stomach to make beer

Scorpion Tail 





























(D18) immunity from scorpion sting, take the top of the tail, dry on fire, grind it, rub it into medicinal cuts ( middle wrist anterior and posterior) or take the top of the tail and scrub it on your tongue and you get stripes there – a Herero thing 

(D11) for immunity, just heard, other people, maybe Herero

(D21) for immunity, just heard some people make medicinal cuts and rub it in; use petrol for the sting

(D29) for immunity saw people in the bush do it but not here. They put snake poison into cuts

(N27 D/Na28) for immunity just heard people rub things into medicinal cuts

(J78) some people make cuts and rub things (scorpion?) in for immunity

(J93) mix scorpion with plant t/a and eat, then if a scorpion crawls on him it will not hurt him, if it ‘bites’ you do not feel it

(J2183) for immunity rub (unspecified) into cuts

(Nh98) rub things into cuts to make you immune

(Kh2116) for immunity cut yourself and rub in scorpion poison ( the same type of poison to counteract the poison)

(Kh2120) for immunity, take head of the yellow snake, the monkey spider, the noba slang ( six legs, thin about ten inches long with a tail ) and the scorpion, dry them, grind, then you cut yourself in with that. It can’t kill you because it is not one poison but lots of poisons and they argue against each other, so they fight each other. Cut on the arm and between the shoulder blades. We still do it and we do it to babies around five months old


(D6) healers can remove live scorpions that are inside you causing sickness [ common KhoiSan knowledge ]

(J78) If someone has been bitten before and it is not painful  he will help someone who is hurt by the scorpion, the scorpion is good for him, he will help take the pains back to the place where he bites

(J2164) for immunity make cuts and rub in plant medicine

(!Ko2175) to protect from snake or  scorpion they just  use the medicines when going to hunt so they can be free and nothing disturbs them, plant medicine

Snake Poison /Head / Body




































































(D13,D21,D28) heard that some people make cuts and put medicine in (snake?) to confer immunity(Da29) saw people on the farm make cuts and put in snake poison to protect themselves

(N23) people living in the veld make the cuts and put in things (snake?) so they cannot be bitten by the snake

(N24) to prevent snakebite make medicinal cuts and put in snake poison, or if bitten make cuts and put in jod /ao !ga  ( the medicine and?) dried snake lizard

(N27) just heard about people putting in snake poison or king lizard into cuts to make themselves immune

(N37) she was bitten and treated with ‘blue shell.’ (commercial blue crystals), given red pepper to drink. Wrapped her in a warm blanket to sweat, cut her and put in a little ≠ao ≠as, snake poison

(H52) some Hai//om make cuts and put things (snake?) into them to confer immunity but it is more a !Kung thing

(Kh7) immunity from snakebite: make cuts and rub in

(Kh2111) immunity: rub nobo snake into cuts

(Kh2118) immunity: dry and grind the noba snake, either  the blue or red ones we have here, mix with the plant slangoustrap and rub into medicinal cuts

(Kh2120) for immunity, take head of the yellow snake, the monkey spider, the noba slang ( six legs, thin about ten inches long with a tail ) and the scorpion, dry them, grind then you cut yourself in with that. It won’t kill you because it is not one poison but lots of poisons and they argue against each other, so they fight each other. Cut on the arm and between the shoulder blades. We still do it and we do it to babies around five months old

(Kh2128) immunity from snake and scorpion ‘bites’. Dry and grind the grass snake, rub into medicinal cuts. The nobunaud, or !nob/aus, the ground snake protects you against all poisonous bites.

(J2154) for snakebite take part of the snake, mix with something and rub it into the bite


(!Xun2109) To confer immunity: take the sharp teeth of any snake, grind, make cuts with a knife in posterior distal wrist, under lateral malleolus, rub in the tooth powder. When you go in the bush snakes run away and die. It is the smell of the snake that you put in you, the //oh

(H2208) for snakebites take teeth of puffadder (ground?) mix with kidney fat of kudu or oryx. Take it in a tin when going to the veld


(J2183) the python is the chief of all the other snakes, and so if you are bitten by the python the other snakes will not bite you any more, or if you have rubbed the fat of the python on your body, you will not get bitten by other snakes.

(J2185) rub python fat on your body so you will not get bitten, if you step on a snake it will die

(Nh2251) my grandfather and brother were smeared in fat of the mamba and it was rubbed into cuts made into them. From then on they not afraid of the mamba. It just lies down if it sees them and the bite does not harm them

(Nh2189) I rub python fat all over my body to be just like a python

(Nh2193) if you put python fat on a child’s body he does not get sick easily

(H2213) people use the leyslang fat to massage the legs

(H2227) rub python fat on your legs so snakes do not come near. When they smell it they run


(Nh2189) used the ≠khu (gallbladder) of the cobra, the one that helps so that the poison of the snake will not affect him – he will vomit out the poison. If a snake looks at him it will die


(D4) rain men see snakes in people’s body’s

(D6) maybe if you are bitten by a snake that poison is taken out as a snake. The snake is his chief /gais

(D14) heard it is the Himba who are immune to snakebite. If a snake frightens you  then it goes into your body

(D22) the old people sucked snakes out of sick people

(H50) he takes snakes out of people’s body’s

(H68) in  the eland forehead, the centre, there is a hair in which is a snake, a short one, about 6 inches long, and if you shoot him that snake you can see him he goes into the ground

(H56) it is the !Kung who make themselves immune to snakebite

(!Ku76) when he sucks if the /gais of the snake doesn’t help he uses another. If the snake sees him it will lie down and he can go through, not bitten.  When he sees a snake track he draws a line across it, so he cannot meet the snake again.

(Kh2110) if you have cuts with the ground snake in, the !nob/aus, and you punch someone in a fight, they will swell up

(Kh2111) when they see the tracks of the snake and the tortoise, even if it is winter there bodies become warm and they know rain is coming

(Kh2124) there is a man with a snake in his stomach. When the snake straightens up he can’t take it. It makes him do things that he does not know about

(Khwe dam 2139) python is a nice meat for him. The people say the python is healthy and it’s also the belt of the Lord.

The old people believed that snakes are from god, it is a beautiful snake and when you kill the snake you must be careful to kill the snake, and it is also very important when you see the lightning, you  will never see that snake again

(J86) the eland gets the fat from the python, he gets it from the wind of the python. That is why the eland and the python are the same

(J2159) we used to eat puffadder; for immunity some people cut in a special plant, I don’t know it

(J2163) snake poison is n/um

(J2164) used to eat puffadder

(J2167) I don’t eat snake it it has a lot of bones in its body and a lot of poison

(J2168) I do not eat snake, when god created snake he didn’t create him for eating, he just created snakes to bite a person

(J2176) the most poisonous part of the snake is the ch/kō (gallbladder). The smell of a snake can make you very sick even the bones if you have killed it.  You should burn it, if you step on the bones, even with shoes on, you will get pains

and you get sores and the skin peels off.

(J2179) eats python

(J2182) some vomit who feel the smell of a snake

(!Ko2175) to protect from snake or scorpion they just  use the medicines when going to hunt so they can be free and nothing disturbs them, plant medicine

(Nh2187) somebody who stands behind a person and tells him to say or do bad things is like a snake, t’khou, because his tongue is forked

(Nh2196) if it is angry it will sting ( !kai ‘to pinch’ ) you with the tongue, the tongue is the poison

(Nh2196)  I don’t know which part of the snake is poisonous because I have not slaughtered it. Maybe those that have will know which bit. If a snake wants to bite it goes back, doesn’t just strike, so I think it might be somewhere in the tail

(Nh2198) the  t’//gabi ( gallbladder) is the part of the snake that is poisonous

(Nh2199) the poison is in the snake’s teeth

(Nh2200) the snake !namchitsorro – it can show you that you are going to find some meat

(Nh2206) //Gauwa and the snake maybe work together. The snake has a forked tongue maybe because it is evil, like //Gauwa, that is why they are the same. The poison is in their blood then it goes through their teeth, like an injection

(Nh2251) the qamcichoro (pron.line under q) is not poisonous when small but becomes so when it grows up

(H2210) the python was on his body.  It went over him and sat on his head.  It was a message of death, his little mum, his mother’s sister, passed away

(H2211) if you dream of a snake then your girlfriend is pregnant

(H2212) if someone pregnant in the household you dream of snakes.

(H2214) a man in Outjo was born as  a soxa person. He changed into a snake

(H2220) they heard in Himba land, in Kaokao, there is a snake with a lamp.  He uses it to look for food.  He can go far from here to Otjiwarongo. He just puts on the light and he can go

(H2231) the Eland is a soxa animal. In the front hair of the Eland there is a snake.  When he is shot a snake falls out and runs. The elders have seen it

(H2233) I have heard that in the mountains the far side of the Otavi there is that snake with the light in his head

(H/Schatz) next to //Gamab is a leopard on his right and a big three eyed snake on his left

Springbok Stomach 




(Kh2123) for pains in the entire body, take out the stomach and you rub yourself with it. It is very healthy. It is because of the medicine that lies in the stomach 

(Kh2135) I have heard Bushmen could point at a springbok and it could fall

(Nh2189) //Gauwa can become a kudu, duiker or springbok

(Nh2194) healers should not eat springbok

(H2239) they are called ≠haxa in Hai//om

Steinbok, steenbok Skin 





Hair and dung















(N/D31) children’s medicine, make a necklace and wear a strip(H53) the airib gives the children diarrhoea. Give children a necklace of skin to wear to prevent this (?)


(J2182) some wear them on a necklace for luck


(H2228) if someone is unwell we cut them (zyphysternum and lateral stomach) and put in the dung and hair mixed together. It is called âi ≠am

(H2240) !gairib steenbok make cuts  over L5, use hair and dung for children. Make cut and put it there in front ( bilateral anterior inguinal) and back. It is a soxa animal and children cannot eat it without the cuts amongst the Hai//om. It is a sa-a animal

[ soxa = special animal to eat, must have marks on the zyphysternum . Sa = the animals that makes you sick . It ” sa-a’s “]

(J2143) to see the animal before it sees you make a cut between the eyebrows, take the meat mix it with a plant (?) and rub it in


(J2146) they have n/um

(J2154) steenbok, if  young lady marries a man and they do not get a baby they cannot eat steenbok until she has a baby

(J2162) it gives you good luck

(J2164, J2165) a ‘trance dance’ song

(Nh2191) (re. ‘trance dancing’ the church people are saying they are not doing a good thing but they tell them it is their thing. If they have their dance and singing the rain comes. They don’t also want them to take off their clothes and wear the leather clothes [ steenbok aprons] and men wear loincloths. If they sing for the rain it brings the rain

(Nh2198) an infant is not supposed to eat steenbok (Nh2193) and wild pig

(Nh2201) an infant will become thin if they eat steenbok or springhare (Nh2207) they will be sick and die immediately

(H2215) healers change into animals, like the /hâus (?), lion, steenbok; The steenbok is soxa because it can change sex once dead and caught. Also many times they tried to kill a steenbok but it is impossible so they throw it away

(H2215, H2238) it is soxa

(Nh2193) ‘doctors’ should not eat it

(Nh2194) you shouldn’t eat steenbok or hartebeest or springbok if you are a medicine man. Also you cannot just eat any bit of the kudu – you cannot eat the //gabbeh , eat soft meat without sinew or our tsso won’t work. You cannot eat  fish

Tortoise Shell 






























































(D2) his great great grandfather used to use it for children who were not urinating well. Heat the shell in the fire, take a part of it and press either side of the abdomen(D5) for children who cannot urinate, heat the bladder with the heated shell, maybe one or two times

(D12) give the shell to drink for heart problems

(D16) give it to drink when a person is not urinating well

(D18) grind and give it to drink for stomach pain

(D19) if a newborn does not urinate well take the back of the shell, heat it on the fire, grind it an give it to the baby to drink

(D20, D25) as a container for Damara perfume, Sâi. We used to call it urus

(D29) for a burn, heat tortoise shell, grind it and apply the powder

(N9) she has heard of using a heated shell for the kids who are not urinating well

(N37) for a burn, heat tortoise shell, grind it and apply the powder

(!K65) for storing his healing powder

(!K99) for storing healing fat from the kidney of the eland. He wears two, one either side of his waist and puts a coal in them (sniff the smoke)

(Nh96) for heart swelling up. Burn the shell, take a little, grind into a powder, boil in water and drink; to tell who is sick at a dance make everyone breathe the smoke from the coal in his tortoise shell medicine container

(Nh102) have seen others put sah (powder) in it

(Nh2207) as a container for medicinal eland and giraffe fat

(H56) used the shell to hold boiling water for a medicinal steam bath

(H59) for a sore. Scrape the top of the shell, put it on the fire, grind and pour it on the sore

(H2234) for a child who cannot urinate, put shell on the coals, cool it, put in warm water and give it to the child to drink

(H2240) for people who stop urinating. Scrape the shell in warm water and drink. Particularly for the elders

(Kh2119) toast the shell, let it get cold then you grind it, rub it on a sick baby then roll a cloth around the baby’s body and wait. When they wake up they are better

(Kh2135) as a container for the sa  bush powder. It is like buchu. Put in a hairy piece of african wild cat  and keep it in there. Dust the nostrils of a snore doctor when they want to reconvert him (from animal form). They will also bend him forwards and backwards so the winds can come out

(J2141) for storing the sah powder you smoke a sick person with. You can also dust yourself with it if you get lost and say “how can I get lost”

(J2152) to store sah. Makes the women smell nice and the men use it when sick

(J2156, J2161, J2168) to store sah

(Nh2195) if  a child is constipated and they can’t urinate put on the tortoise shell – dum = tortoise – it can then urinate, you can even boil the shell and give the water to drink and every part inside ie the stomach, opens. It also works on elders but it is mostly for children. You can use all types of tortoise


(H2235) if you stop urinating, cook and drink the tail. Use any type of tortoise


(Kh2130) if you are going deaf put the urine and a hair (yours?) in the ears


(!K63) pieces of shell are pulled out of sick people by healers

(HSchatz) a medicine man must never eat the tortoise. Only old people can

(Kh2111) when they see the tracks of the snake and the tortoise, even if it is winter there bodies become warm and they know rain is coming

(Kh2118) when we go into the veld and the food becomes little we would see the tortoise then we know it is time for the rain dance

(J2157) young ladies don’t eat tortoise

(Nh2196) burn the shell of the tortoise for the rain to come

(H2217) in the past drank water from its shell

Warthog Bones 









(!K/D61) give children who are crawling bones to wear tied to their feet to get them walking(H53) children wear the bones so they can run fast

(H2215) wear the metatarsals of the warthog ( gairib or ≠goras ) around the neck to enable you to run fast

(J2143) hang foot bones on a necklace to make a child strong


(Nh 15) Rub on to protect from any disease


(H53) only if a child has medicinal cuts with eland rubbed in can they safely eat the meat

(H2229) men, women and only some children can eat warthog

(H2218) if you dream that you kill one it means someone has died

(Nh2193) there are some that the doctors are not supposed to eat like the warthog and steinbok because he has those //gau ( //gao ?) and is not supposed to touch those things

Wilderbeest (Blue) Horn 




Horn and hair












(H57) used to use the horn for sucking blood, now use the cow horn(J89) use the horn for sucking out blood. You can also use the cow horn


(Nh2197) people used to burn the horn or throw hairs in the fire to make it rain


(D39) child medicine: put skin on coals, grind and give to drink or soften on coals and give to eat

(H54) the wilderbeest is strong like the eland. If you rub it into cuts made on the children they cannot play together safely


(J2168) Some n/um kao, healers, use the tail [to waft and beat in the healing dance ]


(H60) young people cannot eat it

(J2145) you can cut yourself and put it in (unspecified)

(J2169) they lie down before it rains

Worm Body 





(J92) there is something like a snake ,Goru,  a worm ?? you dry it, grind it, put it on bite and then it takes back all the poison. In the old days the people would use the worm, grind it and keep it by themselves [[ millipede ?]] 

(D20) babies have liver worms from eating dirty things; a worm that lives in the back of the head [ occiput ], everyone has it. It is from God. Goats have it in the nose

(D22) Body worms: found in sores; a worm we are all born with in the head, a worm from God

(D29) it is because of that worm in the head that we are still alive. That sickness of the nose it is that worm who eats the person, if she saw something wrong then she eat the person, that is why you get that nose sickness. Even the livestock has got that worm in the head

(D30) in the head, intestines and looking after every joint and in the arteries

(N33) sometimes the people say the ear hole is a worm hole

(N/D 36) we have a worm in the head that we are born with. In the nose, the one that makes mucous and causes itching. If you sneeze it is the worm moving

(N39) we have a worm ( ≠uni ) in the head. That is why we sneeze. (N37) It is she who makes nubis

(!K62) sheep and goats have !go!go, the head worm (s?). The people who are mad here are the people whose worm has died. It lives in the forehead

(Kh2114) the steinbok and all those wild animals, if they have those worms on their hair, if they have brunsik, they can kill you [brandziekte ?]

(Kh2119) we have a worm in our head. This time when you are walking around the worm is eating in your head and he only comes out when you are dead. I have seen it, when the doctor cut open my brother’s head I saw it

(Khwe dam 2139) people think we have a worm in our head but it is not true. Some dead animals get a worm in the head maybe for may days

(Nh2193 ) worms are not in a person’s head but I have seen them in wild animal heads

Zebra Teeth 


(H2215) warm them up and put them on painful teeth 

(!K65) you can’t eat ostrich, zebra or donkey because of the smell

(J2176) the zebra and the elephant and the warthog, you can feel its smell. Like kudus you can feel if it has recently urinated here

(H2208) Kudu, Oryx, Zebra dreams are good. Lion, elephant, rhino dreams are bad luck

Hairs of any animal (J94) from cervico-dorsal area, burn in fire, add root ( /nuar ) from ≠nae ≠nay tree also scorched put in cuts in arm and wrist [ to improve hunting skill ? ]



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